Teaching English in Japan – What to Expect

The economic boom that swept Japan in the 1980′s brought with it not only a period of wealth and prosperity, but also a sudden surge in a desire to study English. Fueled in part by Japan’s role as an emerging economic force, the need to learn English became a necessity for many companies hoping to compete in the global marketplace. As a result of the affluence during this time more Japanese were also able to travel abroad, thus creating a demand for studying English for those who hoped to hone their English skills before making the journey to a foreign country. Entrepreneurs sensing an opportunity to capitalize on this trend began to open English schools in unprecedented numbers, from large Corporate chains that catered to thousands of students, to small neighborhood schools often employing only a handful of staff. Although the glory days of finding a teaching job on the basis of being a native English speaker alone have faded, the good news is there are still many teaching jobs available in Japan for those willing to make a modest effort to pursue them. Renewed economic growth in the last few years in conjunction with a recent ruling by the Japanese Ministry of Education to include English as part of the elementary school curriculum will also create a need for English instructors in the future.

English teachers in Japan fall basically under two categories, those employed via structured programs such as JET (Japan Exchange and Teaching), and freelance instructors. Teachers who have come to Japan under one of the structured programs can expect benefits which include pre-departure training, visas, flights, living accommodations, and health insurance. Free lance teachers are individuals who arrive in Japan looking for work on their own or who have found a job prior to arriving. In regard to working conditions both can expect to teach approximately 20-35 classes per week, with lessons spanning 50 minutes to one hour in duration. Most teaching positions are at private language schools, with the majority of classes being conducted in the afternoons and evenings. Students range from elementary school, high school, and university students, to housewives and businessmen of all ages. Many of the afternoon classes are typically made up of children who study English after their regular school day has finished, and the majority of evening classes are attended by teens or adults. Size of classes vary, but on average consist of 3-5 students for many of the smaller schools, and up to 15 for larger establishments. Most schools also offer students private lessons.

Entry level salaries for teachers is approximately 250,000 yen per month, though this can fluctuate depending on the company. Some of the larger chain schools such as Nova and ECC offer visa sponsorship and other benefits, such as arranging an apartment for newly arrived teachers. Most schools also subsidize daily train transportation costs. Teachers with experience and a post graduate level qualification in the form of a Masters Degree can expect to make around 400,000 yen a month or more, with the majority of high paying jobs in this category to be found in the High Schools and Universities.

Preformulation and Formulation Development

Optimizing Conformational Stability and Biological ActivityMaintenance of the native three dimensional conformation is critical for the long term stability and biological activity of biotherapeutics. Biophysical characterization techniques such as circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry, FTIR, dynamic light scattering, and fluorescence spectroscopy provide a mechanism to assess the conformational and thermodynamic stability of proteins under a range of formulation conditions. These tools allow development scientists to differentiate various various buffer, pH, ionic strength, and excipient conditions, and identify the conditions that confer the optimum environment for the therapeutic protein.

Utilizing Advanced Statistical Design for Preformulation Development Preformulation development includes statistical design of experiments, allowing simultaneous evaluation of multiple factors and evaluation of interactions between factors. It is crucial to use advanced biophysical characterization techniques to evaluate the conformational stability of large molecules in addition to traditional methods for evaluation of chemical stability.

A large molecule preformulation development program typically includes the following activities:
Evaluate the effect of pH, buffer type, and ionic strength on solubility.
Evaluate the effect of various excipients on improving solubility if necessary.
Evaluate effects of pH, buffer type, and excipients on conformational stability.
Evaluate the effect of pH, buffers, excipients and ionic strength on physical and chemical stability.
Utilize a statistical design approach to identify the optimal conditions for structural, physical and chemical stability.
Perform forced degradation to elucidate product degradation pathways and to demonstrate the stability-indicating capacity of the analytical methods.
Forced degradation studies typically include restricted oxidation, deamidation, aggregation (via agitation), and / or acid / base hydrolysis.
Evaluation of heat stress, photo stress, and freeze thaw are also performed.

Looking for information on Analytical Development and other related resources?

Formulation Development for Numerous Dosage FormsFormulation development includes dosage forms for parenteral, oral topical and inhalation administration, including liquids, gels, suspensions, emulsions and lyophilized powders. Formulation scientists are highly skilled in the development of the dosage forms most relevant to biotherapeutics, with particular expertise in lyophilization and development of stable liquid formulations for proteins. High concentration antibody formulation development for subcutaneous administration requires particular emphasis on viscosity and tonicity. Lyophilization cycle development is performed in the context of the unique thermodynamic properties of the API to deliver an efficient, scalable, transferable process resulting in optimum product stability and reconfiguration characteristics. Formulation development capabilities also include:

Effect of excipients on solubility, tonicity, and viscosity Evaluation of antioxidant and conservative compatibility Container-closure compatibility Long term and accelerated stability studies.

Advantages of Formulation Development Approach. This outlined approach to preformulation and formulation development result in significant savings to the client by eliminating the variables associated with suboptimal formulations. Preclinical development efforts in PK, PD, ADME and toxicology occur with confidence that additional uncontrollable variables from unstable formulations are not introduced into the study. This benefit extends far into clinical trials as well, where assessment of toxicity, dosage levels and efficiency are substantially influenced by an optimal formulation that preserves the three dimensional conformation of the therapeutic protein. By eliminating uncontrolled stability variables, the focus is placed solely on the therapeutic performance and clinical outcome.

Reasons For Pregnant Women to Wear Maternity Clothes

For many women, pregnancy is a very exciting and exciting time in their lives. Through the pregnancy period, a woman undergoes many physical and emotional changes. When a woman begins to gain weight, she can experience physical discomfort as well as feeling less attractive. The inability to wear one's regular clothes can result in frustration and sadness. The importance of wearing maternity clothing is essential to making a woman look and feel good through the entire term of her pregnancy.

When one thinks of maternity clothing, they often think about drab, unattractive, and baggy clothes. Fortunately, there are maternity clothes on the market that are designed to display quality, comfort, durability, and fashion. There are hundreds of online retailers and traditional 'brick and mortar' stores that sell quality and comfortable maternity clothing.

Physical changes an expectant will include include: gain in weight, larger abdomen, and swollen ankles and fingers. Many maternity clothing providers understand the need for a comfortable pair of maternity pants. Many maternity pants can be worn through or nearly all of the pregnancy term. Maternity pants are available in a wide range of colors, styles, designs, and patterns. They can even include jeans with stretchable waist bands. Maternity pants are sold in a broad range of styles and comfort levels. The stretchable elastic waist bands allow an expectant mother to relax. As well, there are pants that are designed to give a slimming effect.

A pregnant woman can still wear stylish brand name dresses. There are maternity dresses for any time of social setting such as at a formal function or just relaxing around the house. One can wear sun dresses, short-sleeved dresses, long-sleeved dresses, strapless dresses, casual dresses, short dresses, or full length dresses. They come in many styles, colors, designs, and patterns. They are designed to make a woman feel comfortable and feminine, while looking fashionable and they take a maternity photography.

Maternity tops can come in a variety of designs, styles, and colors. These tops are comfortable and fit well to the growing abdomen. They are deigned for current and changing fashion trends. They will make a woman feel attractive as she increases in weight.

Swimwear is another popular form of maternity wear. Popular maternity stores that offer maternity swimwear include: bikinis, one piece suits, and bathing suit bottoms. A pregnant mother can enjoy herself sunbathing or swimming. There are a range of maternity swimwear companies that sell swimwear designed by top selling brands.

A pregnancy does not mean one has to wear dismal clothing. There are many top brands that sell chic and trendy maternity clothing such as Old Navy Maternity, Motherhood Maternity, Gap Maternity, and much more. Wearing trendy and stylish maternity clothing through a pregnancy can make a woman comfortable and attractive, thereby allowing her to focus on the arrival of her new bundle of joy.

An expectant mother's pregnancy does not have to have a time of discomfort and feeling unattractive. There are now many popular brand name maternity wear companies that sell a variety of stylish and comfy clothing to meet the needs of every expectant mother.

5 Tips to Avoiding Travel Eczema

Your eczema has been under control for a while. You have attained that sweet spot of equilibrium where your known eczema triggers are understood and avoided, whatever medications you take are working and not causing side effects, your skin is as good as it gets. Only one problem, you will be traveling soon.

Travel eczema, occurs when your body meets up with irritants and allergens you cannot control, as a result of not being on home turf. Whether it’s air, water, food, sun, soaps, detergents or weather, traveling presents some hard to solve problems trying to keep eczema in check.

Sometimes it’s the irritant or allergen you are exposed to that you would usually avoid, that causes the problem. But sometimes, just the change of routine or unfamiliar environments can cause flare-ups. Traveling can be stressful and eczema loves stress.

Here are a few tips to keep eczema at bay:

1) Do a little research into the type of foods you will encounter that are indigenous to the area you will visit. What can you eat, what can’t you eat. Eating the cuisines of other cultures is a major component of travel, and knowing what common additives are used in the preparation of popular dishes is a good way to stay symptom free.

2) Pack enough of your favorite medications, cremes, ointments and solutions. Don’t think you’ll be able to pick some of these up where ever you go. First, some products won’t be available, second , they may be very expensive and third, you don’t want to spend time running a round looking for something to ease your discomfort. If you travel to a tropical climate and you start to experience eczema symptoms like flaking and cracked skin, these minor openings are perfect places for more serious infections to gain a foothold, if you have the right medication this will not present itself as a problem. Better to have a little extra baggage than find yourself without your wonder creme.

3) Try to drink enough water or fluids, this will keep your system less stressed and better able to cope. I try to drink only bottled water that comes as close as possible to the type I drink at home. Meaning, I drink spring water with a specific mineral/chemical make up, so much sulfur, dissolved salts, etc., so when I travel I don’t drink mineral waters which may have higher mineral concentrations or added ingredients. If you drink German beer at home, then drink german beer abroad.

4) Pack and use an anti allergy travel sheet like an Allersac. Bleaches, detergents, soaps, perfumes are just a few of the triggers a travel sheet will help you to avoid when you spend 30% or more, of your time in a strange bed. An anti-allergy travel sheet, one that can be washed repeatedly, will be your best bet. Make sure, which ever travel sheet you use, it has a pillow pocket to protect against direct contact with the hotel pillow. One of the major causes of allergic eczema is dust mite dander. A travel sheet with a small pore size or one that claims protection from dust mites would be wise.

5) Environmental factors like cold, humidity, sunlight and heat can cause flare-ups especially when it’s the change that is the cause. If you travel to a warm climate from mid winter conditions at home, be prepared. Pack clothing that will mitigate reactions, sunblock, hat, gloves etc. The weather might cause your sinus problem to flare, which in turn stresses your body and causes your eczema to activate, or the humidity allows high mold or pollen counts where you travel. There are websites like http://www.aaaai.org/ which publish pollen and mold counts, and many sites for weather forecasts.

Having eczema and learning how it activates and affects you takes years, some people get a handle on it, others don’t, but even if you don’t know what the causes are, some simple precautions, a little research and remaining calm can help you to get the most out of traveling, even with eczema.